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Question No : 1
Which of the following is the most significant reason that domestic governments and international organizations seek to eliminate cartels?
A. The increased sales price reduces the amount of corporate tax revenues payable to the government.
B. True competition keeps prices as low as possible, thus increasing efficiency in the marketplace.
C. Small businesses cannot survive or grow without government protection.
D. The economic stability of developing countries depends on a global free market.
Answer: B

Explanation:
A cartel is an organization of sellers (e.g., the oil cartel OPEC) who undertake joint action to maximize members’ profits by controlling the supply, and therefore the price, of their product. Under the laws of many nations, such collusive conduct is illegal when engaged in by firms subject to those laws. The reason is that, as a result of the monopolistic and anticompetitive practices of cartels, supply is lower, prices are high, competition is restrained, and the relevant industry is less efficient. Accordingly, governmental and international organizations seek to protect consumers and the health of the domestic and global economy through anti-cartel efforts.

Question No : 2
When a multinational firm decides to sell its products abroad, one of the risks the firm faces is that the government of the foreign market charges the firm with dumping. Dumping occurs when
A. The same product sells at different prices in different countries.
B. A firm charges less than the cost to make the product so as to enter or win a market.
C. Lower quality versions of the product are sold abroad so as to be affordable.
D. Transfer prices are set artificially high so as to minimize tax payments.
Answer: B

Explanation:
Dumping is an unfair trade practice that violates international agreements. It occurs when a firmcharges a price (1) lower than that in its home market or (2) less than the cost to make
the product. Dumping may be done to penetrate a market or as a result of export subsidies.

Question No : 3
A global firm
A. Has achieved economies of scale in the firm’s domestic market.
B. Plans, operates, and coordinates business globally.
C. Relies on indirect export.
D. Tends to rely more on one product market.
Answer: B

Explanation:
According to Kotler, “Global firms plan, operate, and coordinate their activities on a worldwide basis.” Thus, a global firm secures cost or product differentiation advantages not available to domestic firms.

Question No : 4
A firm expands into international markets to
A. Be in foreign markets.
B. Eliminate foreign competition
C. Pursue new, higher-profit opportunities.
D. Preclude piracy of the firm’s products.
Answer: C

Explanation:
A firm may decide to go abroad for many reasons, for example, to respond to a competitive challenge in its home country by another global firm, to pursue opportunities yielding greater profits, to achieve economies of scale, to diversify, or to follow customers who need international service.

Question No : 5
A firm wishing to become global must consider how many national markets to enter. A firm should enter fewer national markets when
A. Communication adaptation costs are low.
B. The product need not be adapted.
C. Entry costs are low.
D. The first countries chosen are heavily populated and have high incomes.
Answer: D

Explanation:
According to Ayal and Zif, the following are factors indicating that few national markets should be entered:
(1)
entry costs are high;

(2)
market control costs are high;

(3)
product adaptation costs are high;

(4)
communication adaptation costs are high;

(5)
the first countries selected have large populations, high incomes, and high income growth;

(6)
a dominant firm can erect high entry barriers.

Question No : 6
The least risky method of entering a market in a foreign country is by
A. Indirect exports.
B. Licensing.
C. Direct exports.
D. Direct investments.
Answer: A

Explanation:
An indirect export strategy operates through intermediaries, such as home-country merchants who buy and resell the product, home-country agents who negotiate
transactions with foreign buyers fora commission, cooperatives that represent groups of sellers, and export-management firms that receive fees for administering the firm’s export efforts. Indirect export requires lower investment than direct export and is less risky because of the intermediaries’ expertise.

Question No : 7
An advantage of a direct investment strategy when entering a foreign market is
A. Reduction in the capital at risk.
B. Shared control and responsibility.
C. Assurance of access when the foreign country imposes domestic content rules.
D. Avoidance of interaction with the local bureaucracy.
Answer: C

Explanation:
Direct investment has many advantages:
(1)
cheaper materials or labor,

(2)
receipt of investment incentives from the host government,

(3)
a strong relationship with interested parties in the host country,

(4)
control of the investment,

(5)
a better image in the host country,

(6)
market access when domestic contest rules are in effect. However, direct investment is risky because of exposure to currency fluctuations, expropriation, potentially high exit barriers, and restraints on sending profits out of the country.

Question No : 8
A firm that moves from not exporting on a regular basis to establishing plants in foreign countries has
A. Globalized.
B. Nationalized.
C. Glocalized.
D. Internationalized.
Answer: D

Explanation:
The internationalization process is of crucial interest to nations that wish to encourage local firms to grow and to operate globally. According to Swedish researchers, it involves the following steps:
(1)
Lack of regular exports;

(2)
export via independent agents with a few markets, with later expansion to more countries;

(3)
creation of sales subsidiaries in larger markets;

(4)
establishment of plants in foreign countries.

Question No : 9
Which strategy for a global marketing organization is based on a portfolio of national markets?
A. reaction of a division to manage international marketing.
B. A multinational strategy.
C. A global strategy.
D. Creation of an export department
Answer: B

Explanation:
International marketing efforts take three basic forms:creation of an export department, creation of a division to manage international marketing, or global organization. The latter encompasses genuinely worldwide functions, e.g., manufacturing, marketing, finance, and logistics. Thus, worldwide operations are the organization’s focus, not merely that of a department or division of a national firm. A global organization may follow a multinational, global, or glocal strategy. A multinational strategy adopts a portfolio approach. Its emphasis is on national markets because the need for global integration is not strong. The product is customized for each market and therefore incurs higher production costs. Decision making is primarily local with a minimum of central control. This strategy is most effective given large differences between countries. Also, exchange rate risk is reduced when conducting business in this manner.

Question No : 10
Which strategy for a global marketing organization balances local responsiveness and global integration?
A. Global.
B. Multinational.
C. Glocal.
D. Transnational.
Answer: C

Explanation:
A glocal strategy combines some elements of local responsiveness or adaptation with some elements of global integration. Successful telecommunications firms are examples of balancing these elements. Local responsiveness is indicated when local product tastes and preferences, regulations, and barriers are significant. Global integration is indicated when demand is homogeneous and economies of productive scale are large.

Question No : 11
The creation of regional free trade zones is a global phenomenon. Trade barriers are lowered in these areas, and other steps are taken to promote economic cooperation. For example, a common currency has been adopted by the nations of:
A. NAFTA.
B. Mercosul.
C. APEC.
D. The European Union.
Answer: D

Explanation:
The European Union (Eli) is a collection of 27 European nations that have lowered trade barriers among member states, and most of the nations share a common currency and trade policy. The euro is the common currency of the European Union.

Question No : 12
The three major factors favoring globalization are
A. Cultural, commercial, and technical.
B. Flexibility, proximity, and adaptability.
C. Political, technological, and social.
D. Ambition, positioning, and organization.
Answer: C

Explanation:
The new economy is driven by the digital revolution that facilitates international commerce by providing capabilities that did not exist a relatively few years ago. It is also driven by such political events as the fall of the Soviet Union, the participation of China in the world economic system, the emergence of the European Union, and the creation of other regional free trade zones. These technological and political factors are intertwined with social changes, for example, greater concern for the rights of women and minorities; the advance of multilingualism; and the convergence of tastes in fashion, music, and certain other cultural factors. Accordingly, these factors favor globalization by reducing trade barriers, reducing cost of coordination, increasing economies of scale, and encouraging standardization and global branding.

Question No : 13
Which method of expanding into international markets is most likely the riskiest?
A. A local storage and sale arrangement.
B. Local component assembly.
C. Direct investment.
D. Joint venture.
Answer: C

Explanation:
Direct investment has many advantages:
(1)
cheaper materials or labor,

(2)
receipt of investment incentives from the host government,

(3)
a strong relationship with interested parties in the host country,

(4)
control of the investment,

(5)
a better image in the host country,

(6)
market access when domestic contest rules are in effect. However, direct investment is risky because of exposure to currency fluctuations, expropriation, potentially high exit barriers, and restraints on sending profits out of the country.

Question No : 14
Which strategy for a global marketing organization emphasizes relatively strong central control?
A. Global.
B. Multinational.
C. Creation of an international division.
D. Global
Answer: A

Explanation:
A global strategy regards the world as one market. The product is essentially the same in all countries. Central control of the production process is relatively strong. Faster product development and lower production cost are typical.

Question No : 15
Which of the following is a regional free-trade zone currently limited to South American nations?
A. APEC
B. Mercosul.
C. The Triad Market.
D. NAFTA.
Answer: B

Explanation:
Mercosul is a free-trade agreement among South American nations. They include Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay, and Paraguay. Chile and Bolivia are associate members.

Question No : 16
A country has a comparative advantage in international trade when
A. Firms in the country have a lower cost of production because of natural resources.
B. It has an absolute advantage with respect to at least one input to production.
C. Firms in the country have a lower cost of production because of transportation and other geographic factors.
D. It produces whatever it can produce most efficiently.
Answer: D

Explanation:
A country has a comparative advantage when it can achieve a lower cost of production due to a focus on and a cooperative specialization in a particular product. The greatest advantage from trade is obtained when each nation specializes in producing what it can produce most efficiently. If nations specialize and then exchange with others, more is produced and consumed than if each nation tries to be self-sufficient. Specialization of labor is beneficial for individuals; the same principle applies to nations.

Question No : 17
Michael E Porter developed what is popularly known as the diamond model for determining national advantages in the global business environment. According to this model.
A. Factor conditions are production advantages that are nature-made or inherited.
B. Foreign markets exert less influence than home markets on a firm’s ability to detect demand trends.
C. Reliance on related and supporting industries in the home country weakens a firm’s international competitiveness.
D. Cooperation with domestic competitors clearly aids international competitiveness.
Answer: B

Explanation:
Home demand conditions determine the inherent demand for goods or services that originate within the home country. Porter believes that home markets exert a much higher influence on a firm’s ability to recognize consumer trends than those in a foreign market. Moreover, home demand offsets innovation and product development. Home demand is a function of
(1)
the mixture of customer needs and wants,

(2)
their scope and growth rate,

(3)
the means by which domestic preferences are communicated to international markets. Moreover, a national advantage is achieved when home demand provides more timely and clear trend indicators to domestic firms than to foreign firms.

Question No : 18
A. U.S firm most likely may decide to enter the Australian market because of
B. Geography.
C. The unmet needs of an undeveloped country.
D. Psychic proximity.
E. Population.
Answer: C

Explanation:
Attractiveness of a foreign market is a function of such factors as geography, income, climate, population, and the product. Another major factor is the unmet needs of a developing nation, for example, China or India. Entry into a market abroad may be based on many factors, for example, psychic proximity. Thus, a first-time venture abroad might be in a market with a related culture, language, or laws.
Question No : 19
Firms that sell products worldwide are most likely to have the lowest costs with a marketing mix that is
A. Adapted to each market.
B. Standardized for all markets.
C. A combination of new and adapted products in each market.
D. A combination of standardized products and adapted promotions.
Answer: B

Explanation:
Firms that operate globally must choose a marketing program after considering the need for adaptation to local circumstances. The possibilities lie on a continuum from a purely standardized marketing mix to a purely adapted marketing mix. The former chooses to standardize products, promotion, and distribution. The latter adapts the elements of the mix to each local market. Worldwide standardization of all elements should be the lowest cost marketing strategy. However, even well established global brands ordinarily undergo some adaptation to local markets.

Question No : 20
A firm sells the same product in different countries and uses the same promotion methods. According to keegan’s model of adaptation strategies, this firm has adopted a strategy of
A. Straight extension.
B. Product adaptation.
C. Product invention.
D. Dual adaptation.
Answer: A

Explanation:
Using a straight extension strategy, a higher profit potential exists because virtually no changes are made in the products or its promotion. There is a downside potential if foreign consumers are not familiar with this type of product or do not readily accept it.
Question No : 21
A firm wishing to sell its well-known brand of men’s clothing in a certain foreign country redesigned the products because of the greater average size of consumers in that country. However, the firm retained the same basic advertising campaign. According to Keegan’s model of adaptation strategies, this firm has adopted a strategy of
A. Straight extension.
B. Product adaptation.
C. Forward invention.
D. Backward invention.
Answer: B

Explanation:
Using a product adaptation strategy, a firm makes changes to the product for each market but not its promotion. This can reduce profit potential but may also provide a marketing advantage by taking into account local wants and needs.

Question No : 22
A firm that manufactures refrigerators sold ice boxes in urban areas of less developed countries. Many residents lacked electricity to power refrigerators but could purchase blocks of ice from local vendors for use in ice boxes. According to Keegan’s model of adaptation strategies, this firm adopted a strategy of
A. Product adaptation.
B. Dual adaptation.
C. Backward invention.
D. Forward invention.
Answer: C

Explanation:
Using a product invention strategy, a new product is created specifically for a certain country or regional market. A product may either include advancements for developed countries or have certain elements removed in places where a lower cost is a key selling point. Thus, an ice box, a precursor of the modern refrigerator, is a backward invention.

Question No : 23
Gray market activity is in essence a form of arbitrage. To prevent this activity by their distributors, multinational firms:
I. Raise prices charged to lower-cost distributors.
II. Police the firms’ distributors.
III.
Change the product.

A.
I only.

B.
I and II only.

C.
II and Ill only.

D.
I, II, and Ill.
Answer: D

Explanation:
In a gray market, products imported from one country to another are sold by persons trying to make a profit from the difference in retail prices between the two countries. These activitiesclearly lower the profits in some markets of the multinational firm that was the initial seller. One response is to monitor the practices of distributors and retaliate if necessary. A second response is to charge higher prices to the low-cost distributors to reduce their incentives to participate in a gray market. A third response is to differentiate products sold in different countries, e.g., by adapting the product or offering distinct service features.

Question No : 24
A firm buys new computer equipment from bankrupt companies and resells it in foreign markets at prices significantly below those charged by competitors. The firm is
A. Engaged in dumping.
B. Engaged in price discrimination.
C. Operating in a gray market.
D. Operating in a black market.
Answer: C

Explanation:
In a gray market, products imported from one country to another are sold by persons trying to make a profit from the difference in retail prices between the two countries. In essence, the seller firm in this case was exploiting a price difference between markets.

Question No : 25
A firm ships its product to a foreign subsidiary and charges a price that may increase import duties but lower the income taxes paid by the subsidiary. The most likely reason for these effects is that the:
A. Price is an arm’s-length price.
B. Price is a cost-plus price.
C. Transfer price is too low.
D. Transfer price is too high.
Answer: D

Explanation:
A transfer price is the price charged by one subunit of a firm to another. When the subsidiarybuyer is in a foreign country, the higher the transfer, the higher the potential tariffs.However, the tax levied on a subsequent sale by the subsidiary will be lower because of its higher acquisition cost.

Question No : 26
A global firm establishes a cost-based price for the firm’s product in each country. The most likely negative outcome is that this pricing strategy will
A. Set too high a price in countries where the firm’s costs are high.
B. Overprice the product in some markets and underprice the product in others.
C. Create a gray market.
D. Result in dumping.
Answer: A

Explanation:
A firm may set a cost-based price in each market with a standard markup. In a region or country where costs are high, this strategy may result in prices that are too high to be competitive within the local market.

Question No : 27
A firm sells its product in a foreign market for a much higher price than in the firm’s home market. The reason is most likely:
A. Price elasticity of demand.
B. Dumping.
C. Gray market activity.
D. Price escalation.
Answer: D

Explanation:
Price escalation is caused by an accumulation of additional costs, e.g., currency fluctuations; transportation expenses; profits earned by importers, wholesalers, and retailers; and import duties.

Question No : 28
A firm sold the same product in many foreign countries but changed the ad copy to allow for language and cultural differences. According to teegan’s model of adaptation strategies, the firm adopted a strategy of:
A. Product adaptation.
B. Communication adaptation.
C. Dual adaptation.
D. Straight extension.
Answer: B

Explanation:
Communication adaptation is a strategy that does not change the products, but advertising and marketing campaigns are changed to reflect the local culture and beliefs. For example, a firm may use one message but with changes in language, name, and colors. It may use a consistent theme but change the ad copy in each market. Another option is for a firm to devise a group of ads from which each market may choose the most effective. Still another option is to develop promotion campaigns locally.

Question No : 29
A firm that sells in foreign markets should consider all aspects of how products move from the firm to ultimate users. Where in the whole channel are marketing mix decisions most likely made?
A. Export department of the seller firm.
B. Import department of the buyer firm.
C. Channels within nations.
D. Channels between nations.
Answer: A

Explanation:
Distribution channels are a necessity to ensure that goods are successfully transferred from the production facility to end users. These channels include three distinct links that must work smoothly together.
1.
The international marketing headquarters (export department of international division) is where decisions are made with regard to the subsequent channels and other aspects of the marketing mix.

2.
Channels between nations carry goods to foreign borders. They include air, land, sea, or rail transportation channels. At this stage, in addition to transportation methods, intermediaries are selected (e.g., agents or trading companies) and financing and risk management decisions are reached.

3.
Channels within nations take the goods from the border or entry point to the ultimate users of the products. Among nations, the number of levels of distribution, the types of channels, and the size of retailers vary substantially.
Question No : 30
The inherent attractiveness of a national market is most likely increased by which factor?
A. The firm’s strategic position.
B. The market’s exclusion from a regional free trade zone.
C. Unmet needs of a developing nation.
D. Product adaptation is costly.
Answer: C

Explanation:
Attractiveness is a function of such factors as geography, income, climate, population, and the product. Another major factor is the unmet needs of a developing nation, https://www.pass4itsure.com/IIA-CIA-Part4.html for example, China or India.